Why Computers Use Binary Number System

Computers use binary number systems because they allow computers to store and process data most simply and efficiently using just transistors and electronic switches that have two states – ON and OFF. This makes binary the best numeric system for computer hardware and software architecture.

Unlike the decimal number system which has 10 digits from 0 to 9, the binary system has only two digits – 0 and 1. This perfectly aligns with the two states of a transistor or switch in a computer. ON represents 1 and OFF represents 0.

Representing data in binary format allows computers to encode large amounts of data as sequences of binary digits or bits. A computer processor can perform fast logical and arithmetic operations on these bit patterns. It is much simpler for a processor to differentiate between two states rather than ten states in decimal or more in other number systems.

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